Essays, Rest Stops, Roadside Architecture

Novelty Architecture

Tail o’ the Pup Hot Dog Stand – built in 1946 in San Fernando Valley, California. Credit: : Valley Relics Museum

Novelty architecture, programmatic architecture, mimetic architecture – they’re all names used to describe buildings that were designed and built to mimic the purpose or function of the building.While there are examples of it in history, such as the pyramids and sphinx structures in Egypt, it wasn’t until the 1920s that mimetic, or novelty architecture entered its heyday in the United States.

It’s no surprise that this time frame coincides with the rise of the automobile. Mimetic architecture was especially popular along the highways. Americans were using them more and more for vacations, business and Sunday drives and businesses wanted to get them to stop and spend money. These buildings were eye-catching advertisements designed to grab the attention in the second or two it took a driver to pass it in his car.

The idea worked.

The Ben Hur Coffee Pot, Wilshire Blvd. Los Angeles – Built in 1930

You could get your coffee from a building that looked like a coffee pot….

The Donut Hole, La Puenta, California – Built in 1968 Photo Credit: John Margolies

….or stop for a donut from a building that looked like a donut…

Los Angeles, California film developer.

….or have the film in your camera developed in a little building that looked like your camera.

Bull Dog Cafe, Washington Boulevard, Los Angeles, California – Built in 1928.
The Chili Bowl, Los Angeles, California –  Built in 1931. (gone)
The Mother Goose Pantry, Pasadena, California – Built in late 1920s.

Seems like shoes were popular, here at The Mother Goose Pantry in Pasadena you could grab a meal….

Deschwanden’s Shoe Repair, Bakersfield, California – built in 1931 and still there. Photo credit: John Margolies

….then in later years, head to Deschwandens Shoe Repair in Bakersfield to get your shoes fixed up. It’s still there on Chester and 10th in Bakersfield.

The Cream Can Beverage Counter, Los Angeles, California.
Benewah Milk Bottle at the Benewah Dairy Drink Counter in Spokane, Washington – Built in 1935 and still there. Photo Credit: John Margolies

California had a lot of novelty architecture, there’s even a book about it called Crazy California, but other states had some too….

Mammy’s Cupboard Restaurant Located  on U.S. Highway 61 in  Natchez, Mississippi. Built in 1940, and refurbished in recent years.

…like Mammy’s Cupboard restaurant on U.S. 61 in Natchez, Mississippi….

The Mother Goose Market, Hazard, Kentucky – built 1935-1940 and still there.

….the Mother Goose Market on State Route 476 in Hazard, Kentucky…

The Teapot Dome Gas Station on U.S. Highway 12 in  Zilla, Washington – originally built in 1922

…and the Teapot Dome Gas Station on U.S. highway 12 in Zillah, Washington.

Longaberger Basket Company Headquarters, Newark, Ohio – Opened 1997

There are newer examples too,  like the former Longaberger Basket Company Headquarters in Newark, Ohio.  It opened in 1997 and after three years on the market, the building  sold in January, 2018 to a firm specializing in historic preservation….

Camera Obscura, San Francisco

….and the Camera Obscura building in San Francisco.

Even the Hat and Boots Gas Station in Seattle, built in 1954, has been restored and relocated to a park  south of the city.

Hoot Hoot Ice Cream Parlor, Los Angeles, California – Built in 1925 (gone)

There are so many memories of these gems documented in photographs, and not quite as many still here. I’m drawn to them and I’m  feeling another road trip coming on! But for now?  I’d just like a root beer float at the  Hoot Hoot Ice Cream Parlor please.

Sources and further reading:

John Margolies Roadside America Photograph Archive – Library of Congress website
Weird California – website
Iconic Roadside Relic “Bull Dog Cafe” Saved From Destruction – Roadtrippers.com
Los Angeles Public Library – website
Calisphere.org  – University of California Digital Collections

People

Recommended By Duncan Hines

“Duncan Hines, the cake mix guy?” That’s usually the reaction I get when someone sees one of my postcards that says “Recommended by Duncan Hines” somewhere on it. It’s one of the few times I get to say “it was before my time,” but yep, him. Long before he was the “cake mix guy” Americans relied on Duncan Hines as a connoisseur of restaurants and inns along America’s highways. It’s safe to say he was probably our first food critic, restaurant rater and hotel reviewer. You know, our first Yelp. All of which happened LONG before the cake mixes that my generation knows him for.

Duncan Hines

Duncan Hines was born in Bowling Green, Kentucky in March of 1880. He was raised by his grandmother there before attending college at Bowling Green Business University. He worked a while out west for Wells Fargo before choosing Chicago as his home base to live in as he traveled America’s highways selling office supplies.

He became a traveling salesman just as the automobile was becoming a national obsession. With the rise of the automobile came the rise of the highways and all the little restaurants and inns that serviced them. With no Yelp or Trip Advisor to count on, word-of-mouth was the only review system for these establishments. There wasn’t even a government inspection agency yet for restaurants that Americans could rely on to enforce safe food guidelines or even a Health Department that would inspect for cleanliness of these establishments.

For a time, Duncan Hines, with the help of his wife, Florence, was the most reliable rating and safety system travelers had.

He was never a chef, in fact he admitted to not being able to cook at all. But he was always desperate for a clean restaurant and a good meal as his job took him across miles and miles of American highways. The long hours behind the wheel gave him plenty of time to consider and record the best food he could find. He was always carrying a small journal in his coat pocket where he recorded specific information about where he found the best food and the cleanest kitchens that cooked it.

According to an NPR article by Nicole Jankowski in March of 2017, Hines “meticulously recorded the names of the most pristine diners with the tastiest food.” In his coat-pocket journal he recorded where the best prime beef was, where the stickiest sticky buns were, the hours a restaurant was open, its prices and whether or not it had air conditioning. If they served a particular regional food, he noted that too. It was a comprehensive collection of notes that turned this traveling salesman into a trusted roadside food connoisseur.

Duncan Hines’ friends and family were always asking for a copy of his list. It was word-of-mouth that convinced him to start sharing the list. It didn’t take long for other traveling salesmen and auto tourists to begin asking for his recommendations. In 1935 Duncan and Florence Hines printed the first pamphlet of 167 restaurants in 33 states that he felt he could safely recommend.

Demand for the list continued to increase. In 1936 Duncan Hines was 55 years old when he self-published the first edition of Adventures in Good Eating. He sold it for $1 each. In 1937 he raised the price to $1.50, and kept it there until he stopped publishing it in 1954.

Copies of the pamphlets were in glove compartments everywhere.

The rules were simple: If restaurants could not deliver Duncan Hines a quality meal or a peek at the kitchen, they were never included in the book. “The kitchen is the first spot I inspect,” he said. He accepted no ads or endorsements in exchange for reviews.

“Recommended by Duncan Hines.” became a valuable recommendation for restaurants and later for motels he documented in much the same way he documented restaurants. Business owners actively advertised and benefitted from the Duncan Hines’ “seal of approval”.

Duncan Hines also published: Lodging for a Night (1938), Adventures in Good Cooking (1939), and a variety of recipe and helpful kitchen books over the years such as, Art of Carving in the Home (1939) and the The Duncan Hines Barbecue Cookbook.

It wasn’t until 1952, when he was 72, that Roy Park and Duncan Himes formed the Hines-Park Company. It was this partnership that brought the Duncan Hines name to our kitchens in the form of cake mixes, brownie mixes and ice cream cartons. The company was sold to Proctor and Gamble in 1957. Duncan Hines passed away in March of 1959.  Today, the company is owned by Pinnacle Foods.

For more discussion and information there are active forums on Roadfood.com where members discuss Duncan Hines and the remaining restaurants from that first list of 167. One of the members says, “Traveling the highways with his pencil and notebook changed the way American experienced the open road, one adventure at a time.” I think that sums it up perfectly.

Further Reading:

Duncan Hines: The Original Road Warrior by Nicole Jankowski for NPR
A History of Duncan Hines by John-Bryan Hopkins for Foodimentary
Duncan Hines

Diner Food Friday, U.S. Highways

Diner Food Friday – Cheesy Hash Browns

As I was putting yesterday’s post about the evolution of diners together the idea for Diner Food Fridays came to me. Hubby is a diner food junkie, he can’t help it, so there’s a lot of recipes around here and I’d love to share them!

This hash browns recipe is probably one of his favorites. The full recipe is posted below. A PDF version to print is also included.

This recipe easily serves 4 people.

Ingredients you’ll need:

  • 1 1/2 pounds of Yukon Gold potatoes
  • 1/4 cup finely chopped yellow onion
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon pepper
  • 4 T extra virgin olive oil
  • 1/2 cup pepper jack cheese (we grate ours, but thinly sliced will work too)
  • 1/2 cup Greek yogurt for garnish (sour cream will work too)
  • 2 scallions, finely sliced

Method:

First, peel the potatoes.

Next, using the large holes on a box grater, shred the potatoes.

Place the potatoes on a clean cotton towel or napkin.

Wrap the towel around them and squeeze over the sink to drain out as much water as possible from the potatoes. (I learned this trick from Elise Bauer over at Simply Recipes and it makes for perfectly crispy hash browns every single time.)

In a medium bowl, toss the potatoes with the onions, salt and pepper.

Next, in a large skillet heat 2 teaspoons of olive oil over medium heat. Add one cup of the potatoes to the skillet and press down flat with a spatula. Let it cook without stirring for 5 minutes or until the bottom is browned. Drizzle 1 teaspoon of olive oil over the potatoes and flip. Cook for 5 more minutes, or until the bottom is browned. Sprinkle 2 heaping tablespoons of cheese over the potatoes and fold in half. Cook just until the cheese has melted and serve.

Repeat with remaining ingredients.

Add yogurt and scallions for garnish and serve with your favorite eggs. Enjoy!!

Easy Diner Hashbrowns Recipe

Serves 4
Print Recipe
Ingredients
1 1/2 pounds of Yukon Gold potatoes
1/4 cup finely chopped yellow onion
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
4 T extra virgin olive oil
1/2 cup pepper jack cheese (we grate ours but thinly sliced will work too)
1/2 cup Greek yogurt for garnish (sour cream will work too)
2 scallions, finely sliced

Method:

Peel the potatoes.

Using the large holes on a box grater, shred the potatoes.

Place the potatoes on a clean cotton towel or napkin. Wrap the towel around them and squeeze over the sink to drain as much water as possible from the potatoes.

In a medium bowl, toss the potatoes with the onions, salt and pepper.

In a large skillet, heat 2 teaspoons of olive oil over medium heat. Add one cup of the potatoes to the skillet and press down with a spatula. Let cook without stirring for 5 minutes or until the bottom is browned. Drizzle 1 teaspoon of olive oil over the potatoes and flip. Cook for 5 more minutes, or until the bottom is browned. Sprinkle 2 heaping tablespoons of cheese over the potatoes and fold in half. Cook just until cheese has melted. Serve.

Repeat with remaining ingredients.

Add yogurt and scallions for garnish.

Diners, Rest Stops

Rest Stop: Diners

Back in the day, heading out on the open road was an exercise in relishing the possibilities on the horizon. It was a humbling yet hopeful experience that inspired, entertained, energized, even relaxed us. For many of us, a big part of that experience included roadside diners. Maybe it was the food that held an abundance of comfort in every bite. Maybe it was because the food was so inexpensive. Maybe it was the sense of being part of the community we stopped in as we ate food that generally came from the recipes of the families from the diner owners. Whatever it was, diners were a big part of the auto culture back in the day and we loved it.

According to the American Diner Museum, a true diner is: a “prefabricated structure built at an assembly plant and transported to a permanent location for installation to serve prepared food.” There’s usually a counter, stools and a food preparation area along the back wall. The website also states that a true diner is generally in the shape of a railroad car.

It didn’t start out that way. The earliest “diner” is credited to Walter Scott of Providence, Rhode Island. In 1872 he was working as a pressman and needed to supplement his income. So, he re-purposed a horse-pulled wagon into a cart that served sandwiches, coffee, pies, eggs, etc. to a variety of late-night workers and theater patrons after dusk.  It didn’t take long before Scott was able to quit his pressman job to solely serve inexpensive meals to people after most other restaurants had closed for the day.  More and more carts sprang up in many communities, all of them willing to serve anyone who was out after dark and hungry, all of them popular.

As more wagons and carts appeared, eventually designs for them became more eater-friendly than Walter Scott’s first wagon. Newer carts allowed customers to stand inside or to sit on stools out of the weather. Hand-painted murals, paneled woodwork and etched glass windows became prevalent too.

Later, when communities were replacing their trolleys with electrified street cars, many of them were purchased and converted to a more stationary diner than the lunch wagons and carts.With the advent of the automobile, even as early as the 1920s, the diner became a static roadside destination. The buildings were longer, tables and bathrooms were being added and counters were being moved to make room for larger food sections.

In the meantime, diners were gaining a reputation as “greasy spoons.” Serving inexpensive food in grungy buildings was common. Diner owners were more intent on making a living selling cheap food than they were on maintaining their buildings. Honestly, diners had developed a reputation for serving the “unsavory elements of society.”

The owners tried to improve that image in the wake of the growth of automobile travel. Some added “Miss” to the name of their diners, adding a feminine, home-cooked feeling to the restaurants…..

…..and they tried to soften their image further by adding flowers, shrubs and other landscaping to the exteriors.

The low overhead and the not-exactly-fine-dining probably helped diners to stay in business during the Depression.  Let’s face it, the food was cheap and the amenities were basic – They were made to withstand peril like the Great Depression, and they did.

To help clean up the image, more modern diners with chrome and stainless steel interiors became popular with owners and travelers alike.

In the early 1940s, buses began replacing electric street cars providing another opportunity for entrepreneurs to own a low-cost car to convert to a diner.

Demand for the diner increased yet again after World War II. We were a country on the move at the height of our automobile culture and the roadside diner fueled us for our journeys. By now it wasn’t unusual for the diner to sport Formica counters, leatherette booths and wood-paneled walls. The windows were larger than ever, and some still had stainless steel exteriors.

The Fireplace, Paramus, New Jersey

America’s desire for cheap food grew into a desire for fast cheap food. The advent of the fast-food restaurants beginning in the late 50s cut into the diner market. The response to this was a design revamp. Tudor, Mediteranean and even neo-classical styles were being used by diner designers. Artificial stonework, dark wood, lots of earth tones and the switch to fabric booths instead of the leatherette had all become common. The idea was to replace the stainless steel and bold colors of the prior era. Hindsight makes me wonder if this was a good idea, given the coming downturn in “Dinerville”.

In the 1970s, people like our friend John Baeder (@JohnBaeder on Instagram) were responsible for a revival of diner culture. John spent decades painting over 300 diners, reminding us of what the diner has meant to our culture. (Have a look at the review of his book, John Baeder – Road Well Taken here on Faded Highways).  Thanks to him, other artists and diner documentarians like Richard Gutman inspired us to fall in love with them all over again.

It fascinates me that diners began as lunch wagons or food carts because we eat at quite a few of them today. Here in Madison they don’t allow food trucks, only food carts (pulled with automobiles, not horses 😉 There are festivals of food carts, and they line the Capitol square during the outside Dane County Farmer’s Market from spring to fall.  We’ve eaten well from food trucks too. On our travels we always choose them over any fast food option. With these things in mind, I feel like it’s safe to say diner culture has come full circle. It’s comforting.

Now, the question is: Breakfast or lunch?

Sources and Further Reading:

The American Diner Museum
America On a Plate – BBC Video via Daily Motion
Smithsonian Magazine – A Life Devoted to the American Diner by Sarah Saffian

Hotels and Motels, Places

Early Art Deco Scenes from Miami Beach

The Berkeley Hotel via the Historic American Buildings Survey at the Library of Congress

Miami Beach was incorporated in 1915 after John Collins and his partners had spent some time in the area developing land for crops. As Collins and friends worked the land and built canals to get their avocados, etc. to market, the potential for a beach resort became more and more obvious. The partners and their investors  built the first hotel in 1915 and began the promotion of the area as a resort for wealthy northerners who wanted to escape. Several hotels were built and the resort idea was a success.

Until the hurricane of 1926 brought everything to a halt.

After the hurricane, Miami Beach struggled to rebuild. It wasn’t until the 1930s, a few years after the 1929 stock market crash, that things started to get back on track. Promotion of the beach resort started again as investors funded dozens of small-scale hotels, restaurants, apartments and rooming houses, many of them in the Art Deco design style. It was a was a simpler design style, a more modern answer to the excesses of the Victorian era of design that came before it. And it arrived just in time to turn the blank slate of Miami Beach into a destination of modern elegance. This Art Deco district has had downturns over the years, but with some help it endured and thrives even today.

Postcard scenes from the  1930s and 1940s Art Deco District of Miami Beach:

The Churchill Apartment Hotel

 

Hotel Granada

 

Hoffman’s Cafeteria

 

The Hotel Chesterfield

 

The Shelby

 

The Belmont

It was the 60s and 70s when things turned again for the area. It had become rundown, neglected and some even say the Art Deco neighborhood was dangerous. In 1976, Barbara Capitman, a new resident to Miami Beach at the time, became obsessed with the dilapidated buildings and crumbling neighborhood. It didn’t take too long for her to find other residents, tourists and designers that felt the same. Together, they founded the Miami Design Preservation League (MDPL).  Thank goodness. Their mission was to save these historic structures from neglect, fire and demolition. The MDPL is responsible for making sure the Art Deco District of Miami Beach got on the National Register for Historic Places in 1979. Once again, thanks to the MDPL, the area was on the rise. This time much of it would be known as South Beach. The MDPL started Art Deco Weekends in 1977 to bring residents and tourists to the district for a couple of days of events. In 2018, there were 85 events for visitors to take part in – it’s still going strong.

U.S. Highway 41’s southern terminus is Miami Beach. As a U.S. Highway-obsessed lover of architecture, architect’s wife for Pete’s sake, AND a Florida fanatic, I’m ashamed to say I have never seen these dreamy places in person.  I’ve been mere blocks from the Art Deco district (MERE BLOCKS!)) and missed it completely. It’s a shame……more like shameful, really. But a terrific excuse for another road trip don’t you think?

Sources and further reading:

Miami Beach Art Deco at The Library of Congress
100-year story of Miami Beach – Miami Herald, March 21, 2015
Miami Design Preservation League
Art Deco – Flashback Miami

Hotels and Motels, Rest Stops, U.S. Highways

Then and Now – City Center Motel, Mauston, Wisconsin

2009. City Center Motel on U.S. 12 and the former U.S. 16, now WI state highway 16.

Can you imagine old cars lining the building in that parking lot? Can you imagine parents running after their kids along that second story railing? Can you imagine how noisy those air conditioners were?

Seeing the City Center Motel like this in 2009 was probably the first time I felt a strong need to document the architecture of the American roadside during the heyday of auto tourism.  We were on a U.S. 12 road trip in Wisconsin when we drove up on this motel in Mauston, Wisconsin. It took my breath away. All at once I felt a rush of sadness at its current condition, but also a wave of happiness.

The City Center Motel postcard from its early, single-story days.

Mauston wasn’t a destination. No doubt the travelers that stayed at the City Center Motel were on their way to the Wisconsin Dells, or to Milwaukee, Madison, Minneapolis or Chicago…or points farther. I’m sure it wasn’t always the case, but I like to think the travelers that stayed here were excited, happy and enjoying their trips.

In the years since that first visit, I’ve come across a couple of postcards that depict the motel in those earlier, happier times.

Vintage postcard of the updated, two-story City Center Motel.

Looking at the postcards proves business at the City Center Motel was thriving at some point – They added a whole second story!

2009. Abandoned City Center Motel.

But at some point it fell into disrepair and was abandoned.  According to the Juneau County Star-Times newspaper, the building had become a detriment to the community. As of 2010, it hadn’t welcomed travelers for years, says the newspaper. It no longer met building codes, and became an eyesore on Mauston’s main thoroughfare. At one point, the city of Mauston couldn’t even find the owner to issue its demolition order.

Demolition Auction Notice in 2010. Photo from the Juneau County Star-Times.

Eventually they found him in a suburb of Chicago and issued the order.

2011 – Former site of the City Center Motel, Mauston.

After months of back and forth “discussions” between the owner and the city, the City Center Motel was demolished. During another one of our road trips though the region in 2011 we found nothing remaining except the u-shaped concrete platform the motel once sat on.

2017. Former site of City Center Motel, Mauston.

We drove by it again last weekend on our way to Minnesota. It’s still a vacant lot…..

2017 Former Site of City Center Motel. Available for sale.

…..this time it was for sale.

I prefer to think of it in its heyday.

I know not every building can be saved. And not every building’s story can be told. But I like imagining what these walls could say about the roadside memories shared within them. I’m so grateful for the old postcards I’ve found of the City Center Motel too – they captured it at the high point of its life. And I prefer to think of it this way.

Sources and Further Reading:
Juneau County Star-Times
Razing and Revitalizing Recommended in Mauston – Juneau County Star-Times
City Center Motel Owner Can’t Be Found – Juneau County Star-Times